The purpose of the African Women in Cinema Blog is to provide a space to discuss diverse topics relating to African women in cinema--filmmakers, actors, producers, and all film professionals. The blog is a public forum of the Centre for the Study and Research of African Women in Cinema.

Le Blog sur les femmes africaines dans le cinéma est un espace pour l'échange d'informations concernant les réalisatrices, comédiennes, productrices, critiques et toutes professionnelles dans ce domaine. Ceci sert de forum public du Centre pour l'étude et la recherche des femmes africaines dans le cinémas.


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Director/Directrice, Centre for the Study and Research of African Women in Cinema | Centre pour l'étude et la recherche des femmes africaines dans le cinéma

21 June 2009

The Evolution of Senegalese Women in Cinema, Visual Media and Screen Culture

Updated on 17 February 2018. Report by Beti Ellerson, published 21 June 2009.

Senegal’s illustrious list of Africans in cinema offers a background to a discussion about the rich history of Senegalese women in cinema. To highlight a few on this impressive list: Ousmane Sembene (1923-2007), the father of African cinema, Paulin Soumanou Vieyra (1925-1987), the father of African film history and criticism, Djibril Diop Mambety (1945-1998), avant-garde filmmaker, Annette Mbaye d’Erneville, veteran journalist, communications specialist, critic and writer, Safi Faye, pioneer filmmaker and anthropologist, and Thérèse Mbissine Diop, pioneer actress and tapestry-maker, among the many others. Also on the list of the cultural producers of Senegal is acclaimed writer, Mariama Bâ (1929-1981), best known for her masterpiece Une si longue lettre (So Long a Letter). These brilliant pioneers have all been nurtured in a country whose first president was also an artist. Poet-president Léopold Sédar Senghor (1906-2001), host of the First World Festival of Black Arts in 1966, made his own tribute to African women in the classic poem, Femme noire (Black Woman).

Annette Mbaye d’Erneville, the matriarch of Senegalese media culture, carries with aplomb the name that her son, Ousmane William Mbaye attributes to her in Mere-bi, a documentary that he made about her life. The “Mother of All”, born in 1926, studied in Paris in the late 1940s becoming the first Senegalese to earn a degree in journalism. Staunch feminist, fiercely proud of her culture, she is closely associated with the Maison de la Femme Henriette Bathily (The Women’s House) created in 1994 and located on Gorée Island, Senegal. Having initiated RECIDAK, Rencontres cinématographiques de Dakar, an annual film festival in 1990, she was the director for many years. The 1996 edition of RECIDAK paid homage to African women under the name, Femmes et Cinema (Women and Cinema). Her present preoccupation is the regular publication of the film journal Ciné Culture Afrique. Reflecting on the role of women as cultural producers, she declares: "It is simply a matter of giving voice to women, witnesses of their epoch, who, while expressing themselves, and, through their own lives, reflect a specific image of Africa."(1)

Initiated into the world of international culture as an official guide during the First World Festival of Black Arts in Dakar in 1966, filmmaking pioneer Safi Faye connected with people and places that led her onto her career path. She also became aware of the importance of the preservation of African history and culture, a theme that was omnipresent at the festival and became a leitmotif in her work. She describes that event as an expression of national energy and recalls her desire to meet the intellectuals and researchers who had gathered there.(2) Her encounter with French ethnologist and filmmaker Jean Rouch (1917-2004) at the festival was important, since it allowed her to travel to France a year later as an actor in his 1968 film Petit à Petit (Little by Little). She began studying ethnology and then filmmaking in the early 1970s in Paris, thus launching her dual career as anthropologist and filmmaker. (3) She has this to say about her debut into filmmaking: “I did not come to the cinema by chance. I studied ethnology at the Sorbonne. We were able to have cinematography equipment once a week, and to learn how to used it. I realized that in order to be more efficient I should go to film school…I learned like everyone else--I was the only African woman--how to handle a camera and I became familiar with how to use the cinematography equipment. At the end of the first year, I dared to make a little film [La Passante]…That is how I came to learn filmmaking, it was very easy during those years. I made the film in 1972. Right away, everybody began to talk; "there is an African woman who is making films. It was easy for everybody to know about me because I was the first to appear on the scene.”

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s Safi Faye was the lone woman filmmaker in Senegal. New faces were visible in the 1990s with the emergence of Adrienne Diop, Rokhaya Diop, Mariam Kane Selly, Fatou Kandé Senghor, Aissatou Laba Touré and Kady Sylla; all producing documentaries about aspects of Senegalese life and culture. Safi Faye’s strikingly beautiful Mossane is among the works produced during this dynamic and energetic decade.

The first and second decades of the second millennium prove to be equally prolific for Senegalese women in cinema. Amina N’Diaye Leclerc made her debut in 2000 with the documentary (directed with Éric Cloué), Valdiodio N'Diaye et l'indépendance du Sénégal focusing on her father during a particularly intense period of Senegalese history. Ndéye Thiam-Daquo’s first film is part of the series Vie de Femmes produced by Ivoirian Hanny Tchelley. It is a portrait of Nicole Claire Ndoko, the president of the Federation of African Lawyers and the first Cameroonian woman with a doctorate in law. In 2003, Katy Lena N’Diaye directs her camera at women muralists of Burkina Faso in Traces, Empreintes de femmes (Traces, Impressions of Women). Amy Collé Diop explores the troubled state of Senegalese cinema in her debut film Silence…on ne tourne plus! (2004). Actor Maïmouna Gueye, went behind the camera to direct the documentary, Des Larmes aux souvenirs (2004), a film about the rape of a young boy by an adult man, and how the boy’s family struggles for justice. Employing the epistolary form, Sokhna Amar’s first film, Pourquoi? also focuses on rape. A young woman receives a letter from her best friend telling her about the rape that she endured ten years before. Angèle Diabang's short documentary, Mon beau sourire (My Beautiful Smile, 2005) recalls the feature film Kodou (1975) by her compatriot Ababacar Samb Makharam (1934-1987) some thirty years before. Both highlight the painful practice of lip tattooing. Like Maïmouna Gueye, Senegalese-Malian Aïssa Maïga, a popular actor on French and African screens, ventured into filmmaking with her short fiction drama, Il faut quitter Bamako (2008). French-Senegalese filmmaker Mati Diop, though based in Paris, has a strong need to return to her African roots; thus, 1000 Soleils (1000 Suns, 2008), a film about her famous uncle, the late Senegalese filmmaker Djibril Diop Mambety.

African filmmakers are often described as cinematic griots, transforming the oral tradition of the African griot into visual storytelling. Angèle Diabang blurs the boundaries of the two in Yandé Codou, the Griotte of Senghor (2008), recounting the life of this mythical figure, “the only one who could interrupt Leopold Sedar Senghor’s speech with a song of praise”. Yandé Codou Sène, born in 1932, is the haunting voice in many Senegalese films. Mossane by Safi Faye is perhaps one of the most stunning. Yandé Codou Sène's incantations introduce the beautiful Mossane as she baths in the mythical Mamangueth, and at the end, at the site of her tragic fate, she sings her praises. Carrying on the tradition of the griot, the voices of Senegalese women continue to be heard and seen.

The second decade of the millennium in 2010, the FIFF made a special tribute to Safi Faye, described as La Grande Référence, a role model. The tribute to Safi Faye at the 32nd Festival International de Films de Femmes (2-11 April 2010) demonstrates once again the important place she holds as pioneer in the history of women in cinema. Invited internationally to share her experiences in cinema, Safi Faye often reflects on the environment during that time, nearly forty years ago, in the early 1970s. She recalls the curiosity of her European colleagues in the midst of the “first African woman to dare to make a film." Another tribute to Safi Faye in 2015 was in the form of the Prix Safi Faye/The Safi Faye Award for the 26th edition of the JCC. Initiated by the CREDIF Centre de Recherches, d'Etudes, de Documentation et d'Information sur la Femme (Centre for the Research, Study, Documentation and Information on Women) and supported by UNESCO (United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture). It aims to reward a woman filmmaker whose film—be it a feature or a long documentary—has been selected in the official competition.
The award bears symbolically, the name of Safi Faye; as the first African woman filmmaker: "This pioneering artist has shown the way to a possible woman-inspired and African cinematographic creation."

Regarding Senegalese cinema scholarship and research, Hadja Maï Niang, specialist of image studies as well as filmmaker, focused her doctoral studies on the works of Ousmane Sembene: "Literature and cinema in the creative works of Ousmane Sembène: the source of the adaptations", as well as her Master’s thesis: "Xala d'Ousmane Sembène: analyse narratologique du "dit" et du "vu". She is founder and director of Daaray Sembène - la Maison de la pédagogie de l’image | the centre for image studies and teaches at University of Thies in Senegal.

Follow links to posts on Senegalese women in cinema on the African Women in Cinema Blog

Sabbar Artistiques : Première édition des Ateliers Reflexives Féminins de Dakar | Women’s Reflexive Workshops of Dakar - 19-24 03 2019

Rama Thiaw's Revolution: The Camera as a Weapon. A survey of Rama Thiaw's evolution as a socially committed filmmaker. See:

Iman Djionne’s La Boxeuse | Boxing Girl in the Official Selection at the Luxor African Film Festival 2017. See:

To be a woman filmmaker in Africa | Être réalisatrice en Afrique, at the Festival International de Films de Fribourg (Switzerland) moderated by Claire Diao, features Angele Diabang and Rama Thiaw among the four  panelists. See:

An African woman on the Seine | Une Africaine sur Seine by Ndèye Marame Guèye – 60 years after l’Afrique sur Seine by Paul Soumanou Vieyra. For her Femis film project Une Africane sur Seine, Ndèye Marame Guèye returns to the iconic 1955 film Afrique sur Seine directed by Paulin Soumanou Vieyra (1925-1987) with his African colleagues, all studying cinema in Paris at l'IDHEC, l'Institut des hautes études cinématographiques, presently called FEMIS. See

A look at women in Senegalese hip. Analysis by Fatou Sall. See

Prix Safi Faye de la meilleure réalisatrice - Safi Faye Award for the best woman filmmaker - JCC - Journées Cinématographiques de Carthage. See

Dr Hadja Maï Niang and/et Daaray Sembène - la Maison de la pédagogie de l’image | the centre for image studies. Talking directly to the press, Dr. Hadja Maï Niang, specialist of image studies, presented an uncompromising account of the "programmes that pollute Senegalese radio and television." Addressing the CNRA delegation, the director of the Daaray Sembene outlined the survey results of audio-visual programmes, demonstrating that certain productions "affront the essence of Senegalese society."See :

A review by Fatou Kiné Sene of Sur la Rive (On the Shore) by Mariama Sy and Derrière les rails (Behind the tracks) by Khady Diedhiou. See:

Khady Sylla & Mariama Sylla Faye : Une Simple Parole | A Single Word. Official Selection at the Luxor African Film Festival 2015. See:

Dyana Gaye wins the Ecowas Best Woman Director Award at Fespaco 2015 for Des étoiles | Under the Starry Sky (2013). See:

“Congo, A Doctor to Save Women” by Angèle Diabang: The resilience of women, an analysis of the film by Olivier Barlet. See:

Angèle Diabang adapts "So Long a Letter" to film - Interview by Agnès Chitou -
Filmmaker Angèle Diabang tackles for her first step in fiction So Long a Letter*, a classic of the African literary tradition. Her project is one of ten selected by La Fabrique des cinémas du monde at the French Institute, and presented in May 2014 during the Cannes Film Festival. See:

Marie Kâ : L’Autre Femme | The Other Woman Kâ: I want to challenge the Senegalese view that women are no longer interesting once they've given birth and gone through physical changes due to aging. I have a fascination for anything related to women. Sexuality is one of them. See:

Le décès de la cinéaste Khady Sylla | Cineaste Khady Sylla has passed away. See:

Mille soleils (A Thousand Suns) by Franco-Senegalese Mati Diop, the heritage of Touki Bouki an analysis by Olivier Barlet. See:

Rama Thiaw talks about the "making of" her film "The revolution won’tbe televised". Rama Thiaw talks about the "making of" her film "The revolution won’t be televised". See

This Colour that Disturbs Me | Cette couleur qui me dérange : Khady Pouye sounds the alarm on the practice of xessal (skin bleaching) by Mame Woury Thioubou. See:

Marie-Louise Sarr, a cineaste at the heart of the Master 2 Réalisation Documentaire de Création. Filmmaker Marie-Louise Sarr, who manages the Master 2 Réalisation Documentaire de Création (RDC) at Gaston Berger University (UGB) in Saint Louis, Senegal, talks about how she came to cinema, and the specificities of the programme. See:

Face to Face, Women and Beauty in St. Louis focuses on the work of Mame Woury Thiobou:Beyond the simple matter of aesthetics that traverse the film, I want to investigate the societal practices as it relates to beauty. Why do women have to resort to artifices to feel beautiful? And in so doing, to what need are they submitting?” See:

Rama Thiaw, A Young Filmmaker in the Struggle. The Senegalese filmmaker became known with her documentary Boul Fallé, The Wrestling Way, a politically committed film which uses sport to show how the youth of Pikine—a disadvantaged neighborhood in Dakar—overcome their plight. See:

Dyana Gaye: Un transport en commun/St. Louis Blues, in the Official Selection at Fespaco 2011. See:

Fatou Kandé Senghor: My Work, My Passion | Mon Travail, Ma Passion. An reflection piece written by Fatou and translated by Beti Ellerson from French and published on the African Women in Cinema Blog, she talks about her work and her feminism. See:

Interview with Franco-Senegalese filmmaker Alice Diop by Olivier Barlet about her film La Mort de Danton (Danton's Death)* in Africultures. Translated from French by Beti Ellerson. See:

Showcasing Marie Ka at Cannes 2009. Invited by the Cinémas du Monde Pavillon/Pavilion of World Cinemas, Marie Ka is showcased by TV5 on the Croisette at the 2009 Cannes Festival. In five short episodes, she talks about her film, which is being screened at the Film Market, and her hopes of finding a producer. See:

In Memory of Yandé Codou Sène (1932-2010). African filmmakers are often described as cinematic griots, continuing the oral tradition of the African griot via visual storytelling. Angèle Diabang blurs the boundaries of the two in Yandé Codou, the Griotte of Senghor (2008), recounting the life of this mythical figure, “the only one who could interrupt Leopold Sedar Senghor’s speech with a song of praise”. In her film, Yandé Codou Sène, diva séeréer, Laurence Gavron, naturalized Senegalese, originally from France, returns to the roots of the Serer Diva. See:

Safi Faye: Role Model | La Grande Référence. See:

Thérèse M’Bissine Diop: A Pioneer in African Cinema

In front of the camera: the role of African women actors

Relevant Links:
Mère-bi by Ousmane William Mbaye

1. Annette Mbaye d’Erneville: Une femme de comunication/Annette Mbaye d’Erneville: A Lady with a talent for communication by Rokhaya Oumar Diagne and Souleymane Bachir Diagne. Presence Africaine 153 (1996): 93.
2. Cissé, Alassane, and Madior Fall. 1996. "Un film en Afrique, c'est la galère." Sud Week-end [Dakar, Senegal], 12 October, 6-7.
3. The information on Safi Faye is drawn from my article, “Africa Through a Woman’s Eyes: Safi Faye’s Cinema”. Focus on African Films. Françoise Pfaff, ed. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2004. 

14 June 2009

African Women Leading the Way in Cinema: Sharing, Mentoring, Role-Modeling and Working Together

African Women Leading the Way in Cinema: Sharing, Mentoring, Role-Modeling and Working Together by Beti Ellerson

During the spring 2009 academic semester, I taught the undergraduate course Women and Leadership, using the occasion to talk about African women in cinema as examples of role models, mentors and advocates for positive images of women. This was the first time that I had focused on African women in cinema in that way.

The course inspired me to further probe the issue of African women in cinema and leadership, which is the subject of this post. I have outlined several strategies that I adapted from women and leadership discourse, many of which have already been incorporated into mission statements, women caucus objectives and general organizational goals in African women in cinema settings:

  • Empowerment of women using a variety of approaches
  • Organizing around issues that are relevant to African women’s needs
  • Networking through continent-wide links and with other relevant partners
  • Outreach by developing activities or programs to access more women potentially interested in cinema
  • Mentorship as a tool for women’s development
  • Role Modeling by using the visibility of successful women in cinema and representations of strong, successful or inspiring women through the moving image
  • Sharing information, ideas, tips, via workshopping, volunteering, blogging, 
  • Informing: spreading information through various outlets
  • Information-gathering and dissemination through research, databases, the Internet
  • Providing access to informational networks through resource venues, 
  • Archiving: Storing information for research and consultation
  • Showcasing women’s accomplishment and experiences through film festivals, cine-clubs and innovative film screenings followed by discussion 
  • Consciousness-raising through cinema
  • Nurturing: developing, encouraging, cultivating, promoting skills 
  • Orientation into cinema through purposeful recruitment
  • Sponsorship through fundraising and grant-writing
  • Career development: fostering the careers of women in cinema through master classes, advance workshops and motivational speakers
  • Research: Film studies in film history, criticism and analysis
  • Training: Professional training in all aspects of cinema
  • Advocacy and activism using cinema as a tool for social change
That African female professionals of the moving image support each other in an empowering manner is important to their overall ability to succeed in cinema. The use of support mechanisms such as professional organizations, meeting caucuses, ongoing contacts and mentoring relationships are essential, as they are the foundation to the acquisition of resources, funding and professional development. There is also a role in film criticism for the cultivation of mentorship, support systems and leadership awareness--for the images that project these characteristics go a long way in building awareness and raising consciousness. For instance, by highlighting films that portray women as leaders, that depict strong characters and women supporting each other, the public is aware that these situations exist. At the same time, forums that confront the portrayal of women in negative and stereotypical ways, such as in film criticism discourse and ciné-club debates, also play a role in raising consciousness. Thus, cultivating a critical eye among the spectatorship is a role that leaders in cinema must play.

This sentiment is echoed in a 1978 study by African women researchers and published by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 1981: “Women have an especially important role to play in the development of Africa. By its portrayal of women, the mass media can either impede or foster women's integration in the development process. If women are portrayed only in traditional roles in the media, society's attitudes and women's expectations for themselves will necessarily be confined to these roles. On the other hand, if the media's image of women reflects the full range of contributions women are capable of making to society, societal attitudes towards women will be correspondingly broadened.” (1)

African women in cinema continue to affirm their commitment to these objectives. Burkinabé Valerie Kaboré puts it this way: “In general, the development of Africa depends on what we will do for women of our generation and those of the future. In the context of cinema, we, with a woman's sensibility, can bring a great deal to this continent. While the number of women who go to school is not very high, the number in the area of the media and cinema is even less. Though we are only a few in this field, if each of us would aim her camera towards the area of awareness-building—or even in commercial filmmaking—she may contribute in her own way to the development of the continent…I think that encouraging women to become producers or directors in the cinema is to open another style of expression to this half of Africa, which has a great deal to give and much to say.”

Another strategy towards the empowerment of women in cinema is to draw attention to female role models, both as spokeswomen and through documentary films that feature successful women. Pioneers Safi Faye and Sarah Maldoror are often invited to film events to talk about their experiences in cinema. At the African Film Summit held in 2006 in South Africa, both women were featured speakers among the veteran African filmmakers. Filmmakers Flora Mmbugu- Schelling (Tanzania), Lucy Gebre-Egziabher (Ethiopia), Ingrid Sinclair (Britain/Zimbabwe) and Anne-Laure Folly Reimann (Togo) among the many others, name Faye and Maldoror as sources for their inspiration.

As documentary films are a dominant genre among African women in cinema, films that underscore women role models and successful women are naturally prevalent in their works. Burkinabé Franceline Oubda for example, focuses her television programming towards this objective: “I make films about women, their accomplishments, their perspectives, and their experiences. It is a way for me to present examples of women who can be used as role models, as well as give a new perspective on certain preconceived ideas that people have.” Similarly, Aïssatou Adamou has embraced this function: “one of the roles that I have to take on is to transmit my knowledge to my sisters who perhaps have not had the chance to go to school.” Salem Mekuria describes her self-imposed duty to include women in her films: “I feel like I have to focus on stories about women because there aren't that many films being made about stories about women, by women.”

African women in cinema have initiated mechanisms for fostering effective leadership as directors, producers, organizers, actors, critics and other filmmaking professionals. These initiatives aim to create an African women’s cinema culture that encourages and empowers women who seek to work in cinema. The historic African women in cinema meeting at FESPACO (The Pan-African Film Festival of Ouagadougou) in 1991, was organized for just that reason. The genesis of an organized movement of African women in the image industry may be traced to that meeting, the events of which set in motion the groundwork for what would become the visual media network called L'Association des femmes africaines professionnelles du cinéma, de la télévision et de la vidéo/The Association of Professional African Women in Cinema, Television and Video.

More recent initiatives from Africa demonstrate the potentially important role of the Internet and a genuine effort to globalize the experiences of African women in cinema. Women of the Sun is a pioneer in this regard as it uses its website to disseminate information about its activities and also serves as a research tool. Launched in 2000, it is a resource exchange network of African women filmmakers. “It is a project-driven organization, which facilitates African women filmmakers to share their visions, skills and experiences and to commercially exploit filmmaking opportunities. It continually seeks to develop and partner with regional and international programmes as channels to advocate for the promotion, skills development, the showcasing of films and skills with a specific focus on women in the film and television industry in Southern Africa and the rest of Africa.” Another African initiative, Mama Africa, was created, organized and implemented by the Zimbabwe-based Zimmedia in 1996, the final report described the project as follows: “The project enhanced the experience of the six African women directors and their colleagues, created employment during the filmmaking and promoted a more accurate image of African women’s role and capacities. In addition, the project has contributed to growth and recognition of African cinema.”

These structures have provided an environment within which women may support each other’s endeavors by extending that community to other partners, film critics, festival organizers, filmmaking professionals and by finding ways to collaborate with other institutions. This broader outreach is important, as African filmmakers do not always get the needed support and backing from their respective countries. Western countries and international organizations have played a significant role in funding film projects as well as providing other financial support so that women may come together. In 1989 the Montreal-based film festival Vues d'Afrique organized a special section devoted to African women in the visual media. Included was a colloquium on the role of African women in the audiovisual media. Femmes d'images de l'Afrique francophone, compiled by Najwa Tlili (Tunisia), was one of the direct results of this 1989 meeting. The index brings together the biography and filmography of women in the cinema from francophone regions of Africa, as well as a listing of other relevant contacts. In 1998, the Festival international de film de femmes/International Women's Film Festival at Créteil in France, organized an impressive platform devoted to women of Africa. The London-based Images of Black Women (IBW), launched in 2005, is an international film festival that celebrates and promotes women of African Descent in cinema. More recently, the 2008 Cannes Festival sponsored an event devoted to women filmmakers of the South. Some twenty-three women, including sixteen from Africa, assembled to discuss their films and to exchange experiences in cinema. The above are a sample of the many initiatives whose goal is to promote the visibility of African women in cinema.

Women have also expressed their interest in filmmaking to lead the way to creating a more realistic portrayal of women. Wanjiru Kinyanjui describes her objectives thus: “The reality of the strong African woman still needs more emphasis, especially in today's world—where she's fighting a battle of liberation from both traditional and "Victorian" laws which keep her down. Strong images would give her more confidence to stop believing that she needs to be like this or like that, depending on societal beliefs and notions. I like her image when she is shown to be of an independent mind, when she is not a passive being who is too busy following false tracks laid down for her by others who are more interested in "keeping her in her place." One should give her the opportunity to define where her place is! And cinema, because it allows us to travel in a projected world of the possible, not necessarily the present reality, is a great opportunity.”

While Masepeke Sekhukhuni is director of the Newtown Film School in South Africa and mentor to all of her students, she emphasizes the importance of reaching out to the women students. As filmmaking is a medium where the principles of making films are formulated within a male frame of reference, she is concerned about how women are able to understand how to express themselves freely as a woman. Already coming to the medium with certain inhibitions, how are they touched by it? To what extent do they know what the camera is saying? How do they know when to edit? The demystification process of filmmaking begins at the recruitment stage, a daunting task as very few women inquire directly about enrolling in the program. "I always say that women are the best storytellers in Africa," declares Masepeke Sekhukhuni. Therefore, this is where she starts. When recruiting young women to the film school she tells them: "It does not matter whether you call those stories gossip or chit chat or whatever; women have these stories." In addition to showing the benefits of storytelling, she shows that women are also producers and directors in their daily lives. They control the budget at home as well as direct the household, skills they may transfer into film production.

She often looks for ways to empower women who may be intimidated by the heavy film equipment. She reminds them that the heavy buckets that they carry on their heads is a no less difficult task, thus reinforcing the fact that they have the strength to carry heavy cameras and other equipment and the power to do whatever else they set out to do. Masepeke Sekhukhuni understands the importance of starting with perceptions of women on the screen even before talking about the filmmaking process. She expresses some disappointment to see that so many of the women she meets who express interest in cinema only want to be in front of the camera rather than behind, to be presented on the screens rather than work behind the scenes as image-makers--which is not to diminish the importance of actresses but to emphasize the preconceived notions that they have regarding cinema. Her main challenge is finding the best way to show women the value of film school and the role that they can play as filmmakers.

As filmmakers, pioneers Safe Faye and Sarah Maldoror have led the way for women in cinema who have come after them. Sarah Maldoror, who may be honorably called the "grande dame" of African cinema, is Guadeloupian of African descent with a long presence in filmmaking in Africa. Though modest in her acknowledgment of her role as pioneer Safi Faye recognizes that other women respect her accomplishments. When asked about her role as a woman filmmaker, she emphasizes the similar problems that African men and women encounter as filmmakers, though she does note that it has been especially difficult to attract women to filmmaking. Speaking in the documentary film Ouaga: African Cinema Now, (Kwate Nee Owoo and Kweisi Owusu, 1989) she states: “I think it is important that there are women filmmakers and it is a pity that film work is so hard and that many African women don’t get involved in it. Women should have an important role to play in African cinema.” Sarah Maldoror also emphasizes the importance of increasing women’s visibility in cinema: “African women must be everywhere. They must be in the images, behind the camera, in the editing room and involved in every stage of the making of a film. They must be the ones to talk about their problems.” (2)

Valerie Kaboré also agrees that women should play a more active role in all areas of cinema, while underscoring the prohibitive cost of training, which means that to enter filmmaking as a profession is not necessarily a priority. Kaboré notes that beyond the cost of training, perhaps, it is women themselves who do not venture into cinema, emphasizing that the perception of cinema as a profession is that it is not serious and people spend a lot of time away from home. As long as this attitude persists, women will continue to reject the possibility to go into this area. That is why it is necessary to emphasize during the recruitment of women in cinema studies, that they may play a role as catalysts for development and change in Africa. The Africa Women Filmmakers Trust is an example of this type of initiative. Created in 1992, its objective is to improve rural women’s access to information and to encourage the use of participatory methods in development communication in Zimbabwe. Thus filmmaking may be transformative, used to educate the larger public about the issues relating to women.

Anne-Laure Folly Reimann also makes an observation, which is key to forming and sustaining a support network of African women in the moving image: “In order to organize as a group there must be something in common to uphold. In order to have an organizing spirit, there must be a culture that develops this, which we do not have. There must be a means to support ourselves, and we have very little means to do so. When we do come together, it is from a demand to do a documentary made by women. Because we as filmmakers are not the ones who initiate projects; it is the television network or distributor. In addition, the distance inter-continentally makes it difficult, we are too far from each other. We do not have the means to come together. We are not always interconnected, and perhaps we do not have a sufficiently elevated political consciousness to do so.”

Folly Reimann’s assertion brings to mind a conversation that I had with Sarah Maldoror when I told her the proposed title of my book and film on African women in cinema, Sisters of the Screen. She responds, "But we are not sisters, really, we are each in our own isolation making films." In essence, Sarah Maldoror was stating that there was not a sisterhood in African cinema, at least not yet, perhaps echoing Anne-Laure’s sentiments that there needs to be an infrastructure in place to carry out the complexity of processes that informs such an enterprise. Nonetheless, "sisters of the screen," to me, elicits a kindred spirit among women where the screen is their ultimate point of convergence. It is there, where their images are read, whether it is on a movie screen, television screen, or video screen, computer screen, LCD screen. Whether they are directors, producers, film festival organizers, actors, critics, or teachers—those who construct these images, play the characters in these images, interpret these images, find money so these images can be made, organize so that these images may be projected, mentor women so that these images may be created—their efforts converge on that space, the screen, which is the ultimate site on which the moving image is viewed, interpreted, understood. I find this concept more than an intellectualization of a potential filmmaking structure for African women, but rather a sister circle of women in cinema formed as a web that spreads across many environments.

Beyond a structured body, however, African women have shown an "organizing spirit", to borrow from Anne-Laure Folly Reimann, even before the 1991 organizational meeting. They have revealed an interest in working together, in providing a level of mentorship and support for each other. Mesepeke Sekhunkhuni remarks that women at the film school search and inquire about how to connect asking questions such as, "How do we start to network, we have heard there are other women, how do we get in touch with them?" Women often approach her wanting to know how they can link with other women to share each other's experiences.

Ghanaian filmmaker Gyasiwa Ansah insists that women must work collaboratively in order to achieve the objectives that they have set forth. She notes the importance of FESPACO as a forum in which she may exchange ideas with women filmmakers, find out what is going on in the filmmaking arena, and make contacts so that they can continue to communicate with each other. She met with Kenyan filmmaker Anne Mungai in 1997 and was invited to work on the set during the shooting of her next film. Anne Mungai encourages other women to work in "non-traditional" positions in the cinema which stems from her own experiences during film shoots when her all-male crew exhibited sexist attitudes toward her as the director. She realized that because of attitudes within African male-dominated cultures in general and the culture of cinema in particular, film crews are generally made up of men. Observing this same phenomenon, Fanta Nacro wanted to prove that women are as capable of working in any position in a film production. She was able to see this become a reality during the shooting of Un certain matin (A Certain Morning, 1991), a short fiction film that serves to demystify cinema in Africa. Five women, three of whom were African, held the important posts on the crew. She has this to say: “Often in film schools, there is a tendency to steer women only in the areas of make-up artist, scriptwriter, editor, etc. Yet, women are just as competent with the camera and sound equipment. It is for this reason that women were in key positions during my film production.”

This practice of support and solidarity affirms Gyasiwa Ansah's plea to African women to be more helpful and share with each other in order to succeed in the cinema. Kenyans Catherine Muigai and Anne Mungai work together as producer and filmmaker respectively, and are in partnership with other Kenyans both women and men in the company, Sambaza Productions. A continental collaboration among women is increasingly visible in women’s films. The late Alexandra Duah of Ghana acted in Anne Mungai’s Saikati the Enkabaani (1999) while Ivoirian Naky Sy Savane played a leading role in The Night of Truth (2004) by Burkinabé Fanta Nacro.

Like African filmmakers in general, Flora Mmbugu-Schelling's approach to African cinema is multiple, where she takes on not only filmmaking, but also the advocacy role that is an essential part of the process. In 1986, she created the now-defunct, Shoga Women Films, whose aim was to develop an awareness of African cinema, its aesthetics, as well as the representation of African images and culture in film, especially as it relates to women. The objectives of Shoga Women Films as stated in its brochure are: to produce and distribute African films and films made by women or about women from all over the world; to show for the purpose of entertainment or education African films or films by women or about women; to operate a literary and film club with the intention of conducting discourse on films and pertinent matters concerning African cinema.

African women trailblazers in cinema make up an impressive list. In addition to pioneer filmmakers such as Safi Faye and Sarah Maldoror, women in other areas of cinema hold important positions, and thus serve as role models. Senegalese Annette Mbaye d’Erneville is a veteran communication and media specialist, Burkinabé Alminata Salambéré, the Secretary General of FESPACO from 1982 to 1984, continues to be visible in the area of culture. Mahen Bonetti of Sierra Leone is founder and president of the African Film Festival New York, an institution that promotes African cinema in the United States. South African Seipati Bulane-Hopi, a founding member of Women of the Sun, was Secretary General of FEPACI (The Pan-African Federation of Filmmakers) from 2006-2013. The presence of these women on the timeline of African cinema, attests to the legacy of women as role models, mentors and advocates, leading the way for other women.

NOTE: Portions of the above text appear in the article: Visualizing Herstories: An Introduction to African Women Cinema Studies by Beti Ellerson

Updated on 31 December 2017

Works Cited:

1. Women and the Mass Media in Africa: Cases Studies of Sierra Leone, the Niger and Egypt by Elma Lititia Anani, Alkaly Miriama Keita, Awatef Abdel Rahman. The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, 1981.

2. Ecrans d'Afrique/African Screens, No. 12 1995.

05 June 2009

A Focus on Burkinabé Women in Cinema, Visual Media and Screen Culture

A Focus on Burkinabé Women in Cinema, Visual Media and Screen Culture
by Beti Ellerson

The article will be updated to reflect current realities - Updated 31 December 2017.

From the very beginning of the history of cinema in Burkina Faso, women have played a prominent role. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, home to the legendary FESPACO, the biennial pan-African film festival, is also known as the capital of African cinema. Burkina Faso’s commitment to the promotion of African cinema spans fifty years with the creation of the festival in 1969, and is reflected among the highest levels of government.

The country’s president bestows the Etalon de Yennenga, the grand prize of the festival to the winner. General Secretaries of the Festival have gone on to hold other important posts in the government. Two women were among the organizers of the first festival: Alimata Salembéré, a director of the RTV (Radiodiffusion Télévision Voltaïque) at the time, was president of the organizing committee; while Odette Sangho, a representative of the CCFV (Comité d’Animation du Centre Culturel Franco Voltaïque), was a member of the program committee. Women continued to be visible in the subsequent Organising Committees, notably Simone Aïssé Mensah who took over the presidency for the second FESPACO and continued in this position through the fourth.  The Festival is directed under the Secretary General, a post that Alimata Salembéré held from 1982 to 1984, thus overseeing the 8th FESPACO in 1983.

During the week-long festival, students are on holiday and participate in the various activities. The inclusion of youth dates to the first festival in 1969. At the request of the Organizing Committee, Jacqueline Ki-Zerbo, the director of the Cours Normal de Jeunes Filles (and also the wife of the renowned historian Joseph Ki-Zerbo) assembled sixteen girls to participate as hosts to welcome the many guests. One may note among Burkinabé films, the visibility of children as main protagonists. Notably, Gaston Kaboré’s 1982 classic film Wend Kuuni for which the young Rosine Yanogo won the best actress award for her role as Pognéré. The 1997 festival theme, "Cinema, Childhood and Youth" emphasised the significance of cultivating the experiences of African youth as it relates to cinema. Florentine Yaméogo elaborates this point in an interview with me: “I was very pleased with the choice of this year's theme, because it was a theme in which I was already interested.  Through this topic, I felt that we were given the opportunity to really think about the impact that images have on our children...We are realising that if we make films that address their needs in particular, that treat themes and subjects that interest them, that, in fact, we will actually participate in their intellectual, cultural and physical development.” 

Also located in Ouagadougou, are the Cinémathèque africaine, an infrastructure for the conservation of African films as well as a location for research and study, and the MICA (International African Film Market), whose current president is Suzanne Kourouma. In addition, Ouagadougou was the location of the Institut Africain d'Education Cinématographique (INAFEC), the historic film school at the Université de Ouagadougou where some two hundred students throughout the continent were trained between 1976 and 1987.  The core curriculum at INAFEC was multifaceted with a focus on areas such as radio, television, print journalism, scriptwriting, editing, and film production.  The curriculum required that the students first learn scriptwriting and editing, and then work with an assistant director before learning to direct.  After completing the core curriculum, there was the choice between two divisions, one for those who specialized in cinema; and the other for those who specialized in communication.

Many of the first generation of Burkinabé women in cinema were trained at INAFEC: Aminata Arby Boly, Valérie Kaboré, Marie Jeanne Kanyala, Suzanne Kourouma-Sanou, Adjaratou Lompo-Dadjoari, Fanta Régina Nacro, Aminata Ouedraogo and Téné Traoré. They currently work in some aspect of cinema, such as filmmaker, film editor, scriptwriter, film critic, film distributor, film producer and film organizer. Women who have made equally important contributions have trained in other programs in Burkina Faso, Europe as well as the United States:  Laurentine Bayala, Chloe Aicha Boro, Marie Danielle Bougaïre-Zangreyanogho,  Sarah Bouyain, Theresa Traoré Dahlberg, Claire Diao, Aminata Diallo-Glez, Benjamine Douamba, Henriette Ilboudo, Martine Condé Ilboudo, Sophie Kaboré, Benjamine Nama, Franceline Oubda, Adjaratou Ouedraogo, Aissata Ouarma, Danièle Roy, Kadidia Sanogo, Diane Sanou, Cilia Sawadogo, Apolline Traoré, Aminata Yaméogo and Florentine Yaméogo.

Burkina Faso has an early tradition of women making important contributions to society; Princess Yennenga is an illustrious example. The Etalon de Yennenga, the grand prize of FESPACO, is represented by a statue with the image of Yennenga astride a stallion. Franceline Oubda describes the importance of this representation: 
“You have seen that in a conscious or unconscious way, the image of Princess Yennenga is the grand prize of FESPACO, which is very significant.  It demonstrates the importance of women in society.  And I think to have this prize is a crowning achievement.  And we women must fight so that women will achieve this.

If we succeed in obtaining the Etalon de Yennenga, the efforts of women will be crowned and we will have reached a certain objective.  Princess Yennenga was the proof of courage and bravery, the proof of endurance, and she was a woman who did a great deal in Burkina history.  I think to fight for a woman to obtain the Yennenga is truly a step forward, and it will be for the greater welfare and improved standard of women in general.”

Sarraounia, the legendary Azna queen, was the subject of the 1986 film by Mauritanian Med Hondo.  The film by the same name, recounts the African resistance to the French invasion Niger, led by Queen Sarraounia. Burkinabé Ai Keita, who made her debut in the role of Sarraounia notes the tremendous support that the country gives to filmmaking efforts (the film was co-produced with Burkina Faso). Even though this was her debut role, she became wildly popular after it won the Etalon de Yennenga. Similarly, Amssatou Maïga, also a first time actress in her role as the adult Pognéré, became a household name after Buud Yam, a sequel to Wend Kuuni also by Gaston Kaboré, won the Etalon de Yennenga.  Beyond the interest in actors based on star appeal, there is appreciation for the contribution that the actors actually make. The 2003 FESPACO celebrated African actors and actresses under the title: The role of the actor in the creation and promotion of African cinema. Nonetheless, African actors and more specifically actresses have had to push for representation in the form of an actors guild. Towards this effort, actress Georgette Paré created the association, Casting Sud, to promote and support the interest of African actors.

An entire generation of Burkinabé has been raised in a cinema culture thanks to the country’s expansive role in cinema. Thus it is not surprising that women have played an important part from the start and continue to have the support and encouragement to enter into the diverse areas of cinema and to succeed.

In a 2009 interview with Claire Diao, Aminata Ouedraogo attributes this high visibility of women to the initiatives of INAFEC. With its multi-faceted curriculum, graduates were prepared to work in diverse areas of audiovisual production. This practice is evident in the experiences of many of its alumnae. During her professional career Aminata Ouedraogo has made several films and now devotes her time to the pan-African organization for African women film professionals created at FESPACO in 1991. Adjaratou Lompo-Dadjoari who has held senior positions at the National Television of Burkina, made a documentary in 2015 entitled, Les Amazones du cinéma Africain | The Amazons of African cinema about the rise of women professionals in the diverse areas of African. In addition to her filmmaking duties, Valerie Kaboré divides her time to research in communication and development and as director of Media 2000, a film production company based in Ouagadougou. Fanta Nacro who has attained international prominence, is an advocate for the empowerment of women in cinema, which is reflected in her relationship to women professionals in front of and behind the camera in all phases of the filmmaking process. Though the school no longer exists, it has set in place a cadre of women (as well as men) thus forging a tradition for future generations to continue in its footsteps. 

Patrick G. Ilboudo. Le FESPACO 1969-1989: Les Cinéastes africains et leurs oeuvres. Editions La Mante, 1988.
Hamidou Ouedraogo. Naissance et evolution du FESPACO de 1969 à 1973: Les Palmares de 1976 à 1993.  Burkina Faso, 1995.

Relevant Links:
Timeline of Burkinabé Women in Cinema
Relavant articles on Burkinabé women in Cinema, Visual Media and Screen Culture from the African Women in Cinema Blog:

Alimata Salambéré honoured by UNESCO | Alimata Salambéré distinguée par l’UNESCO

Aï Keïta-Yara dans/in “Sarraounia” by/de Med Hondo

FESPACO: Alimata Salembéré, its first president a "woman of principle" | Sa première présidente, “une femme debout”

Frontières, by/d'Apolline Traoré : “Four women tackling African integration” | Quatre femmes à l'assaut de l'intégration africaine by/par Sid-Lamine Salouka

FESPACO 2017: Ouaga Girls by/de Theresa Traore Dahlberg (Burkina Faso

Adjaratou Ouedraogo : Painting and animation, sharing one's experiences through the message of art | La peinture et l'animation, de partager son vécu à travers les messages de l'art

Claire & Angèle, Nadia, Pocas, Rama, in/en conversation: To be a woman filmmaker in Africa | Être réalisatrice en Afrique

Report by | Compte rendu par Laurentine Bayala : JCFA 2016 - Film Festival of African Women | Journées cinématographiques de la femme africaine - Burkina Faso

Afrogames : Diane Sanou spearheads the crowdfunding campaign | Diane Sanou pilote la campagne de financement participatif

Les Amazones du cinéma Africain | The Amazons of African cinema by Adjaratou Lompo

Marie Danielle Bougaïre-Zangreyanogho : At the presidency of CIRTEF | À la présidence du CIRTEF

Les silences de Lydie by/de Aissata Ouarma